The shock term is used to describe a medical condition in which the organs and tissues do not receive a sufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients, it leads to progressive cell death as a failure in the function of the different organs that can plunge the death.
This lack of supply is basically because the amount of blood reaching the tissues is insufficient by a malfunction of the heart (cardiogenic shock), a loss of body fluids (hypovolemic shock) or severe infection (septic shock ). Thus the septic shock is a type of shock which occurs as a result of an inflammatory response in the body due to an infection.
Usually when a microbial infection of the body’s immune system is able to control it and it is localized.However, in some cases, defenses can not fight infection effectively and / or microorganisms eliminate some toxins are put in place a series of mechanisms that cause widespread inflammation causing septic shock.
These mechanisms, which are complex, produce an alteration in different organs including the liver, the kidney and the lung and disrupt the functioning of blood clotting and cardiovascular system.
More often appears in septic shock patients with compromised immune systems such as infants, the elderly or people with immune suppression (such as the chronically ill).
Bacteria are the main organisms causing septic shock can also be caused by fungal infections.
Initial infection from which the reaction occurs may be located generally at the pulmonary-respiratory, genito-urinary, abdominal or gynecological skin and tissues, among others.
The developing generalized infection gives rise to a series of alterations which are reflected in body symptoms:
Diagnosis is based on clinical history and signs that the patient, including:
Physical examination can detect these changes and medical questioning the possible cause of shock.
Other complementary examinations Stop it helpful to be performed diagnosis include:
Analytical (hematology and biochemistry) for determining the existence of infection and if there is involvement of other organs such as the kidney, liver or coagulation due to infection.
Tests of blood coagulation in septic shock may be altered.
Arterial blood gas shows the degree of oxygenation of blood and lack of oxygen to the tissues.
Microbiological cultures. Blood samples were obtained (blood), urine (urine culture), respiratory secretions or those suspected outbreaks as the source of infection to detect the bacteria responsible and give a specific antibiotic.
Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to identify the source of infection: collection of pus in the abdomen, pneumonia, kidney infection (pyelonephritis), etc.
The early treatment is essential to improve the prognosis and resolution of septic shock. It is a disease that requires urgent hospital care. The treatment is based on the introduction of antibiotics, fluid intake and medications to maintain blood pressure.
Volume replacement by administering intravenous fluids. Liquid solutions can be administered crystalloid or colloid type.
Sometimes fluid intake is insufficient to maintain adequate blood pressure to allow the blood to the tissues and is also necessary to use other drugs intravenously. The most commonly used are dopamine and norepinephrine.
Antimicrobial Treatment: Antibiotics or antifungals is aimed at fighting infection.
Specific treatment because, for example, draining of a collection of pus.
Treatment of complications of shock: blood clotting disorders, malfunction may require kidney dialysis or lung stating that the patient needs a machine (ventilator) to breathe.
Other measures called support are aimed at maintaining the patient’s vital signs and control the evolution of the shock:
Administration of oxygen.
Control of the constants: blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation. This uses specific devices called monitors.
Control of diuresis. One indicator that the patient is recovering and fluid intake is adequate recovery is urine output. Requires placement of a urinary catheter.
Keep in mind this is a medical condition that is established quickly and that can have very serious consequences, therefore, is always a medical emergency that requires urgent attention. The correct treatment with antibiotics initial infection may prevent the development of septic shock.
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