Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. When diagnosed, 50% of cancers are metastatic , and only 20% are located. Still, in the latter, survival for both sexes is 40% at 5 years.
It is noteworthy that 90% are malignant tumors.
Depending on the characteristics of the tumor cells originate, are classified into different types, which are, in order of frequency:
Squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma usually presented as central mass while adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma usually do so as a mass or nodule.
Adenocarcinoma can also settle on lung scarring and the least relationship to snuff.
Small cell carcinoma is the worst prognosis.
The snuff is the most important factor for developing lung cancer.
A smoker of 20-25 cigarettes / day has a 20 times greater risk of developing lung cancer than a nonsmoker.
In the 2003 National Health Survey in Spain, the last published, a 30.97% of the population between 15 and 64 years are smokers (37.56% in men and 24.7% in women). Approximately, 1 in 3 people who smoke.
Snuff consumption reduces life expectancy by about 10 years.
In the same way that snuff is the most important factor for developing lung cancer, it has also established the relationship between snuff and many other diseases as neoplasms malignant (oropharynx, larynx, bladder, esophagus, kidney, pancreas and cervix ), cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcer, increased risk of ectopic pregnancy and reduced fertility and premature skin aging.
By quitting, you reduce the risk of developing lung cancer, approaching the risk at 15 years of abandonment of snuff than non-smokers, but never get to meet.
Today, the only prevention for lung cancer is the abandonment of snuff.
The clinical present in most patients with lung cancer is cough, expectoration followed, toracalgia (costal pain) and hemoptysis, which vary depending on the tumor location.
In central tumors (inside the bronchus ) predominates cough, hemoptysis, and dyspnea (difficulty breathing) and peripheral growing tumors often permeates also the toracalgia pleural injury.
In cases where the tumor has invaded other structures, symptoms which may occur are: dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) by compression of the esophagus, hoarseness (for laryngeal nerve blockage) syndrome, superior vena cava (most often produced for small cell carcinoma), Horner syndrome (miosis, ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid)), and enophthalmos (protrusion of the eyeball) by affecting the cervical sympathetic, cardiac tamponade, heart failure and / or arrhythmias and dyspnea spill pleural.
The local extension of squamous cell carcinoma that sits on the apex of the lung can produce Pancoast syndrome consisting of radiological destruction of the 1st and 2nd rib and the involvement of the 8th cervical nerve and 1st and 2nd thoracic. Clinically manifests as shoulder pain with irradiation by the ulnar border of the arm.
50% of lung cancers are metastatic in the time of diagnosis. The most frequent metastases in adrenal glands, brain, liver and bones.
When symptoms are tumor produces a level of other organs or systems are known paraneoplastic syndrome.They are common in lung cancer and may be the first symptom. Notable general symptoms such as anorexia, cachexia and weight loss with fever.
The chest X-ray or an image pathological doubtful, especially in a smoker, must be ruled out lung cancer. It is essential to do it in a patient with symptoms of cough of more than 3 weeks duration.
Other radiological imaging techniques are helpful in diagnosing the chest CT (scanner) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance).
However, the objective of the study is the pathological diagnosis is performed by sputum cytology, ie, the study of cells comprising the tumor being able to classify and by the evaluation of the extension set treatment.
Get in most tumors, treatment varies depending on the stage of the same. The staging of the tumors was performed according to the characteristics of the tumor, or no involvement of lymph nodes and the presence or absence of metastases.
The lung cancer treatment is based on surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, alone or combined together.
Surgery includes surgical procedures such as lobectomy (removal of one lobe), we pneumonectomy (removal of the entire lung) and segmentectomy (removal of part of a lobe).
When a tumor can not be totally removed unresectability discussing, and includes the following cases:
The tumor operability criteria are based on the functional clinical situation of the patient. Inoperability criteria are:
Radiation therapy: External radiation therapy is used to treat primary lung cancer or metastases in other organs. Internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy is generally used palliative .
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