The HIV virus ( HIV ) solves AIDS from. HIV-positive to be means to be sick immediately from AIDS. The disease AIDS is defined by the number of T-cells and viruses , as well as for so-called AIDS-specific diseases.
Despite a decline in the rate of new infections (Roman Koch Institute, 2011), remains the subject of HIV and AIDS, a major issue in the population. In Germany, there are about 70,000 people infected, of whom about two-thirds male sex are.
Of a higher number of unreported cases is expected. World over are 30 million people affected, about three million people die annually as the result of infection. Although a large proportion – about 20 million – of which the African continent is concentrated, AIDS is still a major issue in quantitative terms in Western Europe. Its previous peak reached in the number of new infections here in the early eighties , in which no one about the virus and its transmission knew.
Nevertheless, taking the rate of illness in the population ( prevalence ) to continue, which is also on better and longer survival of patients. There is an association between risk of disease and membership of certain groups. The prevalence of the disease among gay men is still very high. Other risk groups include users iv administered drugs , people from countries where a large proportion of the population is affected, and patients who, for example, due to hemophilia to frequent transfusions are dependent. The latter is at present hardly a risk, as blood donations in this country are examined and selected accordingly.
Transmission occurs through body fluids of an infected person in direct contact with one’s own. This, however, a high concentration of the virus is needed. This applies to blood , semen , vaginal - and cerebrospinal fluid .
This explains the main means of transmission. HIV is both homosexual and heterosexual sex transmitted.Especially the direct contact with infected material blood is dangerous. Already rich minor hardly visible injuries of skin or mucous membranes .
In addition, contaminated blood donations lead to a transfer. Risk are also drug addicts , which may become infected, for example, through the sharing of syringes. Likewise, the virus during birth process or during subsequent breastfeeding be passed from an infected mother to her child (see below).
Although he is an inherited from the cash benefit that is HIV test not performed during pregnancy for many women. But an existing, yet potentially symptomatic HIV infection of the mother can be transmitted to newborns.
The total probability of the transmission is about 20% . Both through the actual process of birth , as well as by the subsequent feeding , the virus may be passed. HIV-positive women is recommended in principle to give up breastfeeding. Also be made with a positive test, before or during pregnancy, measures in order to minimize the risk of infection for the newborn. Thus, access to birth by caesarean section performed, since such a contact of childhood with maternal blood can be avoided.
Thanks to the barrier of the placenta to the unborn child is not usually infected. Therefore, no invasive procedures such as amniocentesis can be performed.
Mother and newborn may also want to antiretroviral therapy received (see below). Contrary to public opinion, there are also HIV-positive women and men who want children very much safer ways of pregnancy without the simultaneous infection of the partner. This includes, for example, the artificial insemination of women tested positive.
An HIV infection is still not curable . Yet it is not an immediate death sentence. The steadily improving medicines and to maintain and improve their quality of life. These are grouped under the term antiretroviral therapy , so a treatment that is targeted towards the specific behavior of this type of virus.
Therapy does not always take place directly after the diagnosis, but only when the number of T cells in Blood permanently below a certain value ( 350/mycrol ).
There are now a number of different drugs, which at various points of the life cycle of a virus attack. For example, then the penetration of the virus into the T-cell can be suppressed. Usually at least three different active ingredients are combined. We then speak of the so-called highly active antiretroviral therapy ( HAART ). Using this form of therapy is with timely initiation of treatment now a normal life span possible.
However, the highly effective drugs are the cause of many side effects . It may, depending on the active ingredient, for example, disorders of metabolism , in the nerve or the formation of bloodcome. Since the drugs must be taken continuously, it is important to weigh the side effects with the efficacy to find an optimal individualized therapy. The effectiveness is regularly reviewed. Here again, the number of plays T cells , but also the amount of the virus in the blood of a role.
After the confirmed diagnosis and initiation of therapy, it is for those concerned unfortunately not done for a long time. It arise in daily life many moral and even legal problems. For example it is exercising caution advised on where to forward the information. HIV is not reportable , so the treating physician full confidentiality exists. Only in exceptional cases, for example, if the doctor has reason to suspect that the patient has unprotected sex with an uninformed partner may be waived.
But with his confidence solid, relatives and friends can be so with careless passing damages be sued. Someone who knows that he has been infected with HIV, is obliged to his sexual partners by a condom before infection or protect him / her about their own disease information .
In interviews , the disease may be overlooked and even denied as long as the activity does not adversely affect the disease. This does not apply to occupational groups with transmission risk, such as surgeons and other medical specialists . However, the HIV infection, for example, even for pilots to be restrictive, as they travel to certain tropical regions is difficult and dangerous.Colleagues at work are usually not at risk because a contagion through saliva is not possible.Exceptions are again people in hospitals and laboratories , where a lot of sharp objects being worked on.
AIDS patients in a severely than performance can severely disabled are classified and relate the relevant benefits.
HIV is the causative agent of the disease AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ). Human immunodeficiency virus ( Human Immunodeficiency Virus / HIV ) is a retrovirus . Retroviruses contain a protein capsule enclosing ribonucleic acid ( RNA ).
RNA is a carrier of genetic information, which is distinguished by certain structural features of the DNA. The DNA in cells is usually present as a double-stranded, while RNA is single stranded.Retroviruses contain RNA in addition to this an enzyme called reverse transcriptase . This enzyme forms an opposite so complementary, ie, mirror-inverted identical significant DNA strand.This is then incorporated using other virus own enzymes in the DNA of the cell in the body, resulting in that the cell is now in the service of the virus producing the blocks.
are so new virus at the expense of be host cell to formed, eventually leaving the cell to other cells infested.
HIV (HI virus) has the peculiarity of only certain cells of the immune system ’s attack on. This is a sub-class of white blood cells , called T lymphocytes , and more specifically the T-helper cells. They are an important part of the specific defense, the specific recognition structures on foreign viruses and bacteria uses to form this fight specifically. T cells have here an intermediary between other important immune cells. Even though they carry a recognition structure on their cell surface, which allows the virus to dock and enter the cell.
To a lesser extent, other cells are the immune system affected. But appears to be the decrease in the T-cells for the development to be crucial, since the count of the T-cells can be safely draw conclusions on the state of the disease.