Goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland.
Usually caused by a too low iodine intake in the diet.
Based on morphological characteristics and function of goiter, it can be classified into several types:
Diffuse-gland increased at the expense of an overall increase and regulate.
Nodular focal increase thyroid size leading to the development of nodules.
Depending on whether it produces more or less thyroid hormone than is necessary for the proper functioning of the organs and body systems, goiter can be:
Symptoms vary depending on the size of the goiter and whether this is overactive, underactive or functioning normally. However, sometimes the only thing that appears is the appearance of a lump in the anterior neck, without the person who has it has no other symptoms.
If very large goiter causes compression of adjacent structures such as the trachea, esophagus, or recurrent nerve, resulting in difficulty breathing, difficulty swallowing and voice alteration.
In addition, the patient presented symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, depending on how well the goiter.
The best method is the cervical ultrasonography, which will establish the morphology of goiter, and also allow us to make it possible puncture to rule out malignancy.
The determination in a blood test thyroid hormones lets us know if the goiter produces a hyperfunction or hypofunction of the gland.
The treatment of goiter is different in different patients depending on their etiology.
Diffuse goiter small or few nodules that are functioning normally and are not necessary to treat, requiring only periodic monitoring.
Small doses of iodine can help when the goiter is due to a deficiency.
When hypothyroidism goiter occurs, administer thyroxine. And if because hyperthyroidism be treated with antithyroid drugs or radioactive iodine or surgery, according to each case.
In cases of large goiter unresponsive to medical management, or that produces compression of the airway or digestive, indicating partial removal of the thyroid gland.
The best preventive measure is the use of table salt with iodine.
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